Effective Negotiation

INTRODUCTION

The whole cosmic economy is interactive phenomenon of animate and inanimate objects. In addition, the objects are interdependent on each other for growth and survival. Human beings are epitome of Divine Creative Activity. The interactive feature of mankind is vital aspect of Divine Scheme of Creation. A rational-moral human interaction quickens / softens evolution of individuals & groups. Mankind faces multiple challenges during varied interactions. The most complex, harmful, and frequent problem of interactive life is miscommunication. It creates mutual hatred and distrust among individuals / groups / nations and leads towards conspiracies, rivalries, and wars. The very basis of miscommunication are Perceptual Errors.Perceptual errors produce misconception among individuals / groups so that miscommunication is surfaced. Consequently, the people involved brake contacts with each other and opt long silence or confrontation or indifference. The unwanted situation can be solved through negotiation. Negotiation is helpful in every sphere of interactive life; it is used to bridge the gaps between husband and wife, parents and children, entrepreneurs and workers, business partners, political leaders, etc. In order to realize successful negotiation we must understand ins and outs of negotiation. Negotiation is the conflict management process of communication to make a compromise/better solution.The successful negotiation is called Effective Negotiation. Effective negotiation is knowledge based, manner driven, and wisdom led negotiation. It creates pragmatic and satisfactory solutions for each party.

PERCEPTUAL ERRORS

Man is intelligent creation of Absolute Intelligence. The distinctive human trait, intellect or perceptual intelligence, make the human being supreme creation of universe. But, intellect can misjudge/misinterpret due to ignorance or lustful tendencies of human nature. Perceptual errors or intellectual mistakes lead to biases in information processing / final judgments. There may arise three types of perceptual errors in a communication process.

Generalization: -Small amount of information are used to draw universal conclusions, e.g., old people are conservative, this person is old so that is conservative, or a humble person is judged to be more honest than a scowling person, even there is no consistent relationship between conservativeness & age or courtesy and honesty. The multiple social rifts such as family rifts and neighborhood rifts are surfaced due to unscientific generalizations.

Projection: -It occurs when people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they have, for instance, a person feels that he will be frustrated if he were in the other position, then he is likely to perceive that the other person is frustrated. People respond differently to similar situations so that projection of own feeling to other may be incorrect. The multiple political mis-communications are generally due to wrong projections.

Power: – Power is an important leverage during interactions; it gives edge to one party over the other. Power develops the perception that you have power and you can impose a verdict, the power-perception limits viable options or can make someone wrongdoer, because, power has germs of corruption-development – in Acton’s words, ‘Power tends to corrupt and absolute powers corrupts absolutely.’ The major sources of power are – Information and Expertise, Control over resources, Location / Position in an organization. Power tactics should be used only as last resort. Ignoring temporal suitability of power tactics may create chaos in the environment; a chaotic situation has certain aftermath for the power user.

CHARACTERISTICS OF NEGOTIATION PROCESS

The prominent characteristics of a negotiation process are:

Interdependence: – In negotiation both parties need each other to arrive at some solution. This situation is called interdependence. Interdependence leads towards mutual adjustments during negotiation.

Mutual Adjustments: – Negotiating parties know that they can influence the other’s outcome and the other can in turn, influence their outcome. This mutual adjustment continues through out the negotiating process. Mutual Adjustments persuade the negotiating parties towards flexibility and concessions.

Flexibility and Concession: – Flexibility and concession is necessary for a settlement. In order to arrive at some acceptable outcome, it is essential to know what we want and what we are prepared to give to get something. It sounds simple but most people enter negotiations without planning their desired outcomes and believe that it is a matter of power or tactics The lopsided approach may lead towards failure. It is noteworthy that a lenient approach on concessions may lead towards unfair demands while strict approach towards concessions may create angry environ. An optimal mix of perceptual intelligence, emotional intelligence, & intentional intelligence is invoked for honest/accurate flexibility and concessions. A negotiation generally encounters two dilemmas:

  • Dilemma of Honesty: -The dilemma is concerned how much of the truth is to tell to other party. On the one hand, telling the person everything about your situation may give that person the opportunity to take advantage of you. On the other hand, not telling the other person anything about your needs and desires may lead to a deadlock due to lack of information. A principle stand towards information sharing is extremely effective for successful negotiation. It is noteworthy that the forgery of information/emotions is uncovered ultimately.
  • Dilemma of Trust: – The second dilemma is concerned with how much to believe of what the other party tells you. If you believe everything that the other party says, he/she may take advantage of you. If you believe nothing, there would be deadlock. The trust depends on many factors such as reputation of party, past experiences, and present circumstances. The principle, “truth is ever green” is very much relevant for successful negotiation; otherwise one has to speak countless lies to conceal one lie even then truth is exposed ultimately.

PATTERN OF NEGOTIATION PROCESS

There is no standard and scientific pattern of successful negotiation; however, a general outline can be prepared to start any negotiation.

Framing: -It is the conceptual platform by which the parties in a negotiation define the problem. For example, Kashmir issue between India and Pakistan can be negotiated on religious frame or on historical frame.

Goal Setting: -It gives foundation to negotiation. It is necessary for successful negotiation. Goal setting includes stating goals, setting goal priorities, identifying multi-goal packages.

Planning: -Effective planning requires hard work on number of steps, such as:

  • Defining Issues, (agenda) – Controlling the number and size of issues in the discussion,
  • Desirability of the defined issues – Enhancing the desirability of the options and alternatives that each party presents to the other,
  • Define Common interests / needs – Establishing a common ground on which the parties can find a basis for agreement on issues,
  • Research – It includes consulting related stakeholders, gathering information, developing supporting arguments, and analyzing the party.

Developing Strategy: -Strategy is an intentional work-pattern to achieve some goals. It is based on good planning. Strategy formulation modal of effective negotiation identify four elements to formulate effective strategies:

  • Choice: – negotiation is voluntary, i.e., a matter of choice and the solution cannot be imposed.
  • Constraints: – Negotiation outcomes are subject to some constraints. The modal suggests pragmatism over doctrine.
  • Interdependence: – Parties motives are interdependent,
  • Imperfect Information: – Parties have imperfect information about each others strengths / weaknesses.

TYPES OF NEGOTIATION

Distributive Negotiation

In win-lose / distributive bargaining parties seek their own maximum advantage through concealing information, misleading or using manipulative tactics. All these actions may lead towards bitterness or hostility. It is noteworthy that effective negotiation is an attempt to resolve a conflict with reason or without force. The second type of distributive bargaining is accommodative or lose-win strategy. One party is ready for some loss for the time being or in short run to achieve some long-run benefits.

Integrative Negotiation

It is win-win / cooperative negotiation. It allows both sides to achieve their goals. The multiple business links such as partnership and varied social linkages such as kinship are generally based on win-win approach, i.e., both parties get benefits from contact. The approach behind integrative negotiation is synergy, i.e., to expand/create possibilities so that benefits will be increased for all parties.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Negotiation is extremely complex phenomena. It demands knowledge, wisdom, and courtesy to arrive at some acceptable outcome for the negotiating parties. The decision-making process in negotiation passes through four phases:

Orientation - In orientation phase, group members socialize, set up certain rules of communication, and agree on their reason for meeting.

Conflict - In the conflict phase, parties begin to discuss their positions on the problem, the environment is filled with arguments / confrontation / war of words.

Emergence - In the emergence phase, members arrive at some acceptable solution and put aside the differences and objections because they are convinced.

Reinforcement - In the reinforced phase, group feelings are rebuilt, outcomes of negotiation are summarized for each party, and solution is implemented in a way to block future conflicts.

The negotiating parties come up with three solutions – win-win, win-lose, and lose-win. The principle behind the win-win strategy is that the parties in conflict can better solve their problem by working together than by waging war. The principle behind the win-lose strategy is that the parties in conflict can reap more benefits by manipulating the situation than by developing consensus. The decision about manipulation should be based on pure reason subject to certain moral values. Otherwise, it would be harmful for manipulator. The principle behind the lose-win or accommodative strategy is that the one party in conflict can reap more benefits in the long run by accommodating the other party in the short run. The decision about accommodative bargain should be based on pure reason subject to certain scientific evaluation; otherwise, it may be harmful for the accommodating party.

Present In The Moment Equals Success In Your Business!

I had a realization in my business the other day that to be successful in your business you have to be present in the moment! Most of the time I am but on Tuesday I was not. I had this dark cloud over my head that cast a spell over me. I was living in the past for a moment like it was my future. I was entertaining those self- sabotaging thoughts that were preventing me from moving forward. I was stuck in moment that wasn’t the present moment, that wasn’t portraying the real me, the creative me that is passionate about helping my clients. So what are some things I do that keep me in the present moment.

One of the biggest things I do is internalize that this life I’m living is a journey or a process and that I am right where I’m suppose to be. So when it comes to my business, I have the same attitude. That keeps me out of the past and also it stops me thinking about things like where I’m supposed to be.

Another thing I do is I help others. This may sound weird because it’s also what I do in my business. But this is the important part of it because when I’m helping others in my business or in life I am present in the moment. I don’t think about what happened yesterday or what will happen tomorrow. I am totally there for the person I am with.

The coolest thing I do is just be. Realizing that I believe that all my decisions are made in the present. Any action I take is in the present. Also even the emotions I feel are in the present. So it really does nothing for my business if I’m living in the past or thinking about the future. Really the past is the old story. The future is what I’m journeying toward. The present is really where I can live in my sweet spot. The present is the daily stuff I do to enhance and grow my business. It’s where the clients I work with get what they need in the present! How cool is that!

I have a curious nature and I was wondering what prevents us from living in the present. I think it’s really wishing for things that will not happen over night. Or it’s worry about things that might happen. It’s okay to wish for things and dream of things as long as you are enjoying the moment you are in. “Worry,” on the other hand, is like a bad word because to worry about things that might happen in your business or worry about things that can fail will never help you to live in the present. Plus worrying about something that can happen puts you in a make- believe world because it hasn’t happened. I know this sounds crazy but really what has worry ever done for anybody.

I have a mentor that always says to live life, like you mean it! The only way you really do that is by being present in the moment! I would love to hear from you now! What keeps you present in the moment! How do you live life in the present moment like you mean it?

Rubric Writing – Using Presentation and Research

This is classified in academics as an accurate assessment tool that is used to measure the work of the students. Rubrics can be holistic or analytic and is a good scoring guide that is used to evaluate the performance of students in different criteria. It is also effective for solving every day problems whether in the classroom or the general public. This method can be traced back to many centuries ago when it was used by scribes working on their manuscripts.

Today, it is an integral part of the teaching and learning process and is works best with involvement of students and teachers. If the students are given presentation rubrics, the teachers should give clear guidelines before the assignment is given so the students will know of the criteria that will be judged. There are numerous content areas in which the rubrics generator can utilized such as science, mathematics, history, languages, writing, music, art, drama and many more.

This is much more than just a checklist with requirements or distributions points, it is a well designed program with clear standards of evaluating performances. The guidelines that are associated with the criteria are usually referring to special task which will describe the level or quality of work to be done with the rubric.

The standard that is used for evaluating the student’s work should be a shared task with the intention of assisting students with the end result in mind. When using rubric writing it should not be used for only performance and evaluation, but when the assigned task is completed; as a reflection and encouragement for the work that was produced.

When grading rubrics writing the marking process can become complicated for some students. They might understand the distinct marks that are given for assignments and they might think the level of work is higher in the areas that they receive lower grades. But this is not understandably as one of the advantages of grading using this method is that it clearly highlights the criteria that must be met to achieve the desired score.

A characteristic of rubric is that it is based on what is learned, it is a true reflection of a tool that is designed to stimulate experiences and real life activities. To put it in simpler terms, this is a scoring guide that makes a distinction between levels of improvement in specific behavior or performance. It is referred to by most persons as the alternative assessment method which differs in parts to the traditional ways. This is because you get a clear insight on how the work is being assessed as it examines the activities that are involved in the learning process.

The rubric generator should be reliable and consistent in scoring in regards to the judging and the time used for evaluating the language used. If the language has to be translated, the judges should be able to distinguish the features for each level of the presentation.

When creating different rubrics writing this can be done on a variety of levels with complexities, but they all contain some common features. These features include measuring behavior, performance or quality; the range that is used to rate the performance and the characteristics that are included in specific performance. These characteristics are in set in levels that would indicate the degree in which the specified standards were met.